Where do you need to reference?

There are two complementary aspects to referencing:

Referencing within the text:

All material sourced from another author, whether it is directly quoted or paraphrased, must be referenced in the text. The format of the in-text reference depends on the referencing style used. For instance, in APA the author-date format is used, and for direct quotes in APA the page number must also be included; in MLA an author-page number, or footnote format is used.

The reference list, a list of works cited or a bibliography:

A complete reference must also appear in a reference list at the end of your work. A reference list, or list of works cited, is a list of all the sources that you refer to in the body of your text. This differs from a bibliography, which traces your reading by including all material that you have consulted in your research and that informs your thinking.

  • Periodicals include sources that are published on a regular basis such as magazines, newspapers, or journals.
  • Nonperiodicals include sources that are published separately such as books, conference papers, reports.
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