Abbreviations

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Abbreviation   Short forWhat it meansWhen to use it
[...]ellipsesmaterial that has been omitted when quoting someone's wordswhen removing irrelevant material
abbr.abbreviation, abbreviatedshortening a word/sentence 
abr.abridgement, abridgedshortening a work without losing the meaning 
acad.academy  
adapt.adapter, adaptation, adapted by  
adj.adjective  
adv.   
a.m.ante meridiembefore noona time between midnight and midday
anon.anonymousauthor is unknown 
app.apendix  
Apr.April  
arch.archaic  
art.article  
assn.association  
assoc.associate, associated  
attrib.attributed to  
Aug.August  
aux.auxiliary verb  
b.born  
bib.biblical  
bibliog.bibliographer, bibliography, bibliographic  
biog.biographer, biography, biographical  
bk.book  
c., ca.circadate is approximate e.g. c. 1675 
cap.capital, capitalise  
CDcompact disc  
CD-ROMcompact disc read-only memory  
cent.century  
cf.compare  
ch., chs., (chap.)chapter, chapters when page numbering varies (eg. viewing a work on different e-book readers), referring to a section is more stable
chor.choreographer, choreographed by  
colloq.colloquial  
comp.compiler, compiled by  
compar.comparative  
cond.conductor, conducted by  
conf.conference  
Dec.December  
def.definition, definite  
dept.department  
dev.development, developed by  
dict.dictionary  
dir.director, directed by  
diss.dissertation  
dist.district  
distr.distributor, distributed by  
div.division  
doc.document  
DVDdigital video/data disc  
DVD-ROMdigital video/data disc read-only memory  
ed., eds.editor, editors  
educ.education, educational  
e.g.exempli gratialatin for 'example' 
e-mailelectronic mail  
encyc.encyclopedia  
esp.especially  
et al.et alii, et aliae, et aliaLatin for 'and others' 
etc.et ceteraLatin for 'and so forth'not appropriate in academic writing
ex.example  
fac.faculty  
Feb.February  
fig.figure when referring to a graph or image
fwd.foreword, foreword by  
govgovernment  
ibid.ibidemin the same work, cited just aboveciting the same source as the one immediately above
i.e.id estLatin for 'in other words' 
illus.illustrator, illustration, illustrated by  
inc.including, incorporated  
inst.institute, institution  
intl.international  
introd.introduction, introduced by  
Jan.January  
jour.journal  
lang.language  
lib.library  
lit.literally, literature, literacy  
loc. cit.loco citatoin the place (or work) cited 
mag.magazine  
Mar.March  
misc.miscellaneous  
mod.modern  
narr.narrator, narrated by  
natl.national  
NBnota beneLatin for 'take notice' 
n.d.no datedate of publication is unknown 
Nov.November  
n.p.no publisherpublisher is unknown 
n. pag.no paginationthe work does not include page numbers 
Oct.October  
op.opusin the work cited 
op. cit.opere citatoin the work citedcitation comes from a previously cited source
orch.orchestra, orchestrated by  
orgorganisation  
orig.original, originally  
p.m.post meridiemafter noona time between midday and midnight
p., pp.page, pages when giving page numbers
par.paragraph  
part.participle  
PDFportable document format  
perf.performer, performed by  
pref.preface, prefaced by  
proc.proceedings when citing the proceedings of a conference/symposium
prod.producer, produced by  
pt.part  
pub., publ.publisher, publication, published by  
qtd.quoted when citing a quote from a source that was citing another source
rec.record, recorded  
rev.revised  
Ref.Reference used to indicate the reference section in a library
rev.review, reviewed by, revision, revised, revised by spell out review where rev. might be ambiguous
rpt.reprint, reprinted, reprinted by  
sc.scene use to indicate a scene in a movie, play etc.
sec., sect.Section when page numbering varies (eg. viewing a work on different e-book readers), referring to a section is more stable
Sept.September  
ser.series  
[sic]An error in a quotationLatin for 'thus'directly following the incorrect material
soc.society  
spec.special use when indicating a special edition of a work
st.stanza  
St.Saint, Saints  
supp., suppl.supplement  
trans.translated when acknowledging the translator
TS, TSStypescript, typescripts to indicate typed communications when citing personal communications using MLA style
var.variant  
vers.version  
v.,vol.,vols.volume, volumes  
vs.versus  
writ.writer, written by  
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