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New Zealand Law Style Guide - book

Bibliography entry

For assignments which require a bibliography, this should be added at the end of your assignment in the format detailed in Appendix 7  of the NZLSG. Your bibliography should cite all relevant sources used in your research.

Books should be listed alphabetically by author surname in the format First name Surname. Books should NOT be categorised by jurisdiction.

Books are cited in accordance with NZLSG Rule 6.1.

One author

Multiple joint authors

Edited book

Essays and book chapters in edited books

Footnote citation

Put a footnote number in your text to show when you are using another person's ideas or words. This number directs the reader to a footnote at the bottom of the page, containing information about the work you are citing. See NZLSG Rule 2.2 for footnote formatting.

The first time a book is cited in your footnotes refers to it in full in the same format as your bibliography entry. At the end of the citation you can provide a pinpoint to the specific page or paragraph within the book you are referring to. Paragraph numbers should be indicated by square brackets. Any subsequent references to this item may be formatted according to the cross-referencing rules in the NZLSG at Rule 2.3.

In a defamation action there are four recognised defences – honest opinion, truth, privilege and consent.1 The defence of honest opinion originally had the name “fair comment on a matter of public interest” but was changed by the Defamation Act 1992.2

The defence of truth has also been renamed, as it was originally known as justification.7 In a defamation case the plaintiff does not have to provide evidence which proves that the defendant’s remarks are false, the burden of proof lies with the defendant.8


1 Ursula Cheer and John Burrows “Defamation” in Stephen Todd (ed) The Law of Torts in New Zealand (6th ed, Brookers, Wellington, 2013) 809 at [16.7].


2 At [16.8.01].

7 Cheer and Burrows, above n 1, at [16.9].

8 Bill Atkin and Geoff McLay Torts in New Zealand: Cases and Materials (5th ed, Oxford University Press, South Melbourne, 2012) at 640.

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